Not surprisingly, others got into the trade soon after Becknell returned, and by 1825 goods from Missouri were not only being traded in Santa Fe, but to other points farther south as well. It played a vital role in the westward expansion of the US into these new lands. [9] Snively planned to plunder Mexican merchant caravans on territory claimed by Texas, in retaliation for recent Texian executions and Mexican invasions, but his battalion was quickly arrested and disarmed by the US troops escorting the caravans. He recruited John McDaniel and a small band of men in the proximate vicinity of St. Louis, giving McDaniel the rank of a Texas captain. Transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Realizing the value, they demanded compensation for granting passage to the trail. It had just won independence from Spain in the Mexican War of Independence. It was later used extensively by people from the United States in the 19th century after the Louisiana Purchase. “Council Grove was the most important stop on the Santa Fe Trail,” says Don Cress, who founded the local chapter of the Santa Fe Trail Association. They also brought animals The Republic of Texas competed with Mexico in claiming Santa Fe, as part of the territory north and east of the Rio Grande which both nations claimed following Texas's secession from Mexico in 1836. [15] At Great Bend, the trail encountered the Arkansas River. Opened by William Becknell, a trader, the trail was used by merchant wagon caravans travelling in parallel columns, which, when Indians attacked, as they did frequently between 1864 and… Instead of settling into a home near family, the Magoffins prepared for a trading expedition down the Santa Fe Trail. In 1866, just a year after the Civil War ended, an unprecedented period of railroad expansion began in the new state of Kansas. Santa Fe Trail Diaries. In the 19th century the Santa Fe Trail was one of the longest and most important trade routes in the United States. The route across Missouri first used by Becknell followed portions of the existing Osage Trace and the Medicine Trails. Santa Fe Trail and Oregon Trail. The Oregon trail was Missouri based route. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico City. With the development of rail transport, traffic on the Trail soon dropped to merely local trade. It was used extensively by traders, freighters, those headed to Pikes Peak, and the military from its survey by the federal government in 1825 until the 1870s. Traders on the Santa Fe Trail generally left for Santa Fe in May, when the grass was high enough to afford forage for their animals and they arrived in July of the same year. Their intention was to persuade the people of Santa Fe and New Mexico to relinquish control over the territory under dispute with Mexico, and over associated Santa Fe Trail commerce. The caravan size increased later on to prevent Indian raids. 87504, If you want to know even more, find books to read in our. [12][13], Warfield was reportedly unaware of the crime. From Olathe, the trail passed through the towns of Baldwin City, Burlingame, and Council Grove, then swung west of McPherson to the town of Lyons. They were subjected to harsh and austere treatment during a tortuous forced march to Mexico City, where they were tried, convicted and imprisoned for their insurgent activities.[11]. Santa Fe was near the northern terminus of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which led overland between Mexico City to San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico. From 1610, when the Spanish founded the city of Santa Fe, to the 1860s, when the railroad brought unprecedented changes: here is the full, fascinating story of the great Santa Fe Trail which ran between Missouri and Kansas and New Mexico--a lifeline to and from the Southwest for more than two centuries. They raided to gain a steady supply of horses to sell. Even so, it became important in the Santa Fe trade. Remnants of the trail days can be seen at 21 historic landmarks, including nine National Historic Santa Fe Trail sites. He found a trail for part of the route that was wide enough for wagon trains and draft teams, making it … This habitat disruption, on top of overhunting, contributed to the collapse of the species. With this financial base, the railway extended west, gradually adding new connections through rougher west country along the western Trail. George C. Sibley (1782-1863) – An American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, politician, and educator who surveyed the Santa Fe Trail.. Charles H. Withington (1816-1881) – A blacksmith for the Sac and Fox Indians, Withington was the first white settler in Lyon County, Kansas.There, he operated a successful store along the trail, as well as serving as a mail agent. [19] In fact, the Cimarron River was one of the only sources of water along this branch of the trail. This route was generally very hazardous because it had very little water. It enters Colorado, cutting across the southeast corner of the state before entering New Mexico. Segments of this trail in Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Interested in learning more or planning a visit? Commercial freighting along the trail boomed to unheard-of levels, including considerable military freight hauling to supply the southwestern forts. It passed north of Marshall, through Lexington to Fort Osage, then to Independence. They represented the Republic of Texas and its president Mirabeau B. Lamar. West of Garden City in southwestern Kansas the trail splits into two branches. Taos became a center for the so-called southern fur trade. He made an unprovoked attack on Mexican troops outside Mora, New Mexico, leaving five dead. The history of the trail in New Mexico is full of interesting facts and stories. But, after the Invincibles destroyed much of an advance party led by Captain Ventura Lovato, the governor retreated. Trappers and hunters who sought beaver pelts and the hides of other animals used Taos as a place to trade their harvests for new supplies. By 1843, traders from New Mexico and Chihuahua had become the majority of traders involved in the traffic of goods over the Santa Fe Trail. New Mexico governor Manuel Armijo led Mexican troops out of Santa Fe to protect incoming caravans. Within two years, rails had been laid all the way across central Kansas, and by 1873, two different rail lines reached from eastern Kansas all the way into Colorado. Most, however, used the Cimarron Route, which was shorter and faster but required knowledge of where the route’s scarce water supplies were located. The Santa Fe Trail divided into two main sections in New Mexico: the Cimarron Cutoff, and the Mountain Route. Knowing about recent political disturbances there, they hoped for a welcome by the rebellious faction in New Mexico. After the murder of Chávez, Warfield began limited military hostilities in the region using recruits from the southern Rockies. Why was the Santa Fe Trail Important? [20] In Missouri, this includes the 85th and Manchester "Three Trails" Trail Segment, Arrow Rock Ferry Landing, Santa Fe Trail-Grand Pass Trail Segments, and Santa Fe Trail-Saline County Trail Segments. Cimarron Route thru Kansas towards Oklahoma. With Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Raymond Massey, Ronald Reagan. New Mexicans appreciated the relative freedoms of a frontier, remote from Mexico City. Cargo mule trains were run from Fort Bernard to the Santa Fe Trail. The Santa Fe Trail By: Will Anderson 8B/1 Alana Van Slovis 8B/17 Caroline Rothans 8B/12 Bring-A-Longs Difficulties People, who were usually traders, brought food materials like coffee, sugar, flour, salt, beans, and dried apples with them on the trail. The newspapers reported that Americans and Mexicans were outraged by the crime. When she was eighteen, she married Samuel Magoffin, a successful Santa Fe Trail merchant twenty-seven years older than herself. In a sense, after World War I the trail was reborn; by the 1920s it gradually became paved automobile roads. During the early 1870s, three different railroads vied to build rails over Raton Pass in order to serve the New Mexico market. ... Santa Anne and his troops attacked the rebels in the Alamo for 12 days before the Mexicans finally captured the mission after killing all 187 of the Americans. In 1863, with all the political bickering over railroad legislation, entrepreneurs opened their pockets and set their sights on the American Southwest leading to the gradual construction east to west of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway; the name eponymously reflecting the intentions of the founders, the expected eastern terminus to be in Atchison, Kansas. By the 1840s, trail traffic through the Arkansas Valley was so numerous that bison herds were cut off from important seasonal grazing land. Opened by William Becknell, a trader, the trail was used by merchant wagon caravans travelling in parallel columns, which, when Indians attacked, as they did frequently between 1864 and 1869, could quickly form a circular line of defense. The earlier Fort and the identity of its traders are less certain; they may have been independents and not employees of the large fur companies. The longest clearly identifiable section of the trail, Santa Fe Trail Remains, near Dodge City, Kansas, is listed as a National Historic Landmark. Between 1821 and 1880, the Santa Fe Trail was primarily a commercial highway connecting Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico. After Warfield headed toward the Rockies with a companion, McDaniel led a robbery in April 1843 (in present-day Rice County, Kansas) of a lightly manned Santa Fe Trail trading caravan. The Santa Fe Trail began as a commercial venture when the quickly growing population in Santa Fe needed goods and services. Because the Santa Fe Trail hauled primarily commercial goods, this railroad expansion meant that the trading caravans needed to traverse increasingly short distances. Freshwater was scarce, and the high steppe-like plains are nearly treeless. Weather conditions, like huge lightning storms, gave the travelers even more difficulty. This area included a large stretch of the Santa Fe trail, a lucrative trade route that linked Missouri (then the eastern boundary of the United States) with the town of Santa Fe in present-day New Mexico. 1833) on what became the Oregon Trail (1832–34). Manufactured goods were hauled from the state of Missouri in the United States to Santa Fe, which was in the northern Mexican state of Nuevo Mexico.[7]. Santa Fe Trail, in U.S. history, famed wagon trail from Independence, Mo., to Santa Fe, N.M., an important commercial route (1821–80). The trail was used to carry products from the central plains to the trail head towns St. Joseph and Independence, Missouri. [9]. Others before him had been arrested by Spanish soldiers once they neared Santa Fe, and most had been hauled south toward Mexico City to serve lengthy prison sentences. an important trade route going between Independence, Missouri, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, used from about 1821 to 1880. Water flows in the Pecos, Arkansas, Cimarron, and Canadian rivers that drain the region vary by 90 or more percent in their flows during an average year. Comanche raiding farther south in Mexico isolated New Mexico, making it more dependent on the American trade. Santa Fe Trail This trails' long history of use started with William Becknell, who was the first of the traders to use this trail. Commercial freighting along the trail boomed to unheard-of levels, including considerable military freight hauling to supply the southwestern forts. American traders envisioned them as another market. Why was the Gold Rush important? Learn more about trail life, trail impacts on indigenous people, how the trail shaped history and more! In 1854, Jeb Stuart, George Custer and other graduates from West Point are posted to Kansas to help pacify the territory before railroad construction to Santa Fe can resume. The party was captured by governor Armijo's Mexican army under less than honest negotiations. Route What were the three main items traded through the Santa Fe Trail? Part of this route has been designated a National Scenic Byway. Katie Bowen traveled the Santa Fe Trail in 1851 with her army officer husband, Captain Isaac Bowen. The other main branch, called the Cimarron Cutoff or Cimarron Crossing or Middle Crossing[16]:93[17]:133[18]:144 cut southwest across the Cimarron Desert (also known as the Waterscrape or La Jornada[18]:148) to the valley of the Cimarron River near the town of Ulysses and Elkhart then continued toward Boise City, Oklahoma, to Clayton, New Mexico, joining up with northern branch at Fort Union. Settlers seeking the opportunity to hold free land used wagon trains to follow various emigrant trails that branched off to points west. Becknell, however, was pleasantly surprised to find that Mexico had overthrown the Spanish yoke, and the new Mexican government – unlike their predecessors – welcomed outside trade. So from 1821 till 1846 this trail's main use was as a international commercial highway for Mexican and American traders. [5], The American army used the trail route in 1846 to invade New Mexico during the Mexican–American War.[6]. [14] After disarming these men, Captain Philip St. George Cooke allowed them to return to Texas.[9]. The trail was also used by stagecoach lines, thousands of gold seekers heading to the California and Colorado gold fields, adventurers, missionaries, wealthy New Mexican families and emigrants. Lewis-Bingham-Waggoner House Located at 313 West Pacific in Independence, this 19-acre tract is along the route of the Santa Fe Trail as it left the square area. It connects El Monte to Westward Expansion after the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, firmly lodging the city within the U.S. nation-state and cutting off anything or anyone that came before the first American families in El Monte in the 19th century. From Watrous, the reunited branches continued southward to Santa Fe. Travelers faced many hardships along the Santa Fe Trail. [original research? Comanche power declined in the region when they lost their most important game. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico City. It is also known as the Oregon-California Trail. The Santa Fe Trail was the most important route to the West from the Missouri River to Santa Fe, Mexico, before the era of the railroads. Then, in February 1880, the railroad reached Santa Fe, and the trail faded into history. In a move to bootstrap their own base market, the railway began offering packaged "Shopping Excursion deals" to potential buyers desiring to look over a real estate parcel. List two economic or political consequences of the Santa Fe Trail. After the U.S. acquisition of the Southwest that ended the war, the trail was integral to the U.S. opening the region to economic development and settlement. Independence was also one of the historic "jumping off points" for the Oregon and California Trails. He proposed deposing the governments in the Mexican provinces of New Mexico and Chihuahua and returning half of the spoils to the Republic of Texas. The railroad's sale of its land granted by congress fostered growth of new towns and businesses along its route, which generated railway traffic and revenues. Warfield lost his horses after an encounter in Wagon Mound, where the Mexican forces had made chase. Also on this trail, unlike the Oregon trail, there was a serious danger of Indian attacks, for neither the Comanches nor the Apaches of the southern high plains tolerated trespassers. Like the Oregon Trail, another famous wagon trail, it began in Independence, Missouri. After the Mexican and American war in 1849 mass immigration started again. The political philosophy of Manifest Destiny, the idea that the US should extend from one coast to another, dominated national political discussions. Santa Fe, NM William Becknell (1787 or 1788 – April 30, 1865) was an American soldier, politician, and freight operator who is credited by Americans with opening the Santa Fe Trail in 1821. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war in 1848, the Santa Fe Trail became a national road connecting the more settled parts of the United States to the new southwest territories. National Trails Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along the Missouri River, the trail served as a vital commercial highway until 1880, when the railroad arrived in Santa Fe. The section of the trail between Independence and Olathe was also used by immigrants on the California and Oregon Trails, which branched off to the northwest near Gardner, Kansas. [16]:93[17]:133. 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